Posts tagged studii

cercetătorii români zic…

Ştiţi cercetătorii britanici şi savanţii suedezi? în fiecare zi, pe ultima pagină din Libertatea, mai aflăm ce au descoperit - şi tare ne supărăm, că de ce nu descoperă nimica şi românii noştri?

De-acu-însă, poa’ să ne treacă supărarea.

Academia Română e pe felie! Rău de tot!

“Cele mai bune condiţii materiale de creştere şi dezvoltare a copilului există în gospodăriile cu un singur copil” - e ideea susţinută de cercetătorii Academiei Române. Cu alte cuvinte, un copil are cele mai mari şanse să ducă o viaţă bună, economic vorbind, dacă este singur la părinţi. Concluzia cercetătorilor vine în urma unor evaluări comparative, bazate pe statisticile privind bugetele familiilor din România. (de aici)

Academia Română nu se lasă. Am auzit că plănuieşte să demonstreze că oamenii poartă tricouri vara pentru că e cald, că cei care stau la etajul unu trebuie să urce mai multe trepte decît cei care stau la parter şi că tramvaiul din spate nu poa’ să-l depăşească pe ăl din faţă.

Diferenţa dintre bine şi rău

La şase luni bebeluşii pot să-şi dea seama un pic despre bine şi rău - şi despre diferenţa dintre bine şi rău:

At the age of six months babies can barely sit up - let along take their first tottering steps, crawl or talk.

But, according to psychologists, they have already developed a sense of moral code - and can tell the difference between good and evil.

An astonishing series of experiments is challenging the views of many psychologists and social scientists that human beings are born as ‘blank slates’ - and that our morality is shaped by our parents and experiences.

Instead, they suggest that the difference between good and bad may be hardwired into the brain at birth.

In one experiment involving puppets, babies aged six months old showed a strong preference to ‘good’ helpful characters - and rejected unhelpful, ‘naughty’ ones.

In another, they even acted as judge and jury. When asked to take away treats from a ‘naughty’ puppet, some babies went further - and dished out their own punishment with a smack on its head. (articolul, de pe Daily Mail)

Copiii crescuti de bunici II

Scriam mai anul trecut despre copiii crescuţi de bunici - şi despre posibiltatea ca să le fie e mai greu sa socializeze, pentru că petrec putin timp cu alti copii - mai putin decit decit aceia crescuti in crese sau de bone - si sint predispusi, astfel, la probleme comportamentale.

Dintr-un articol apărut în Daily Mail aflăm şi despre predispoziţia spre obezitate  a acelorlaşi copiii. De ce?

‘We can only hypothesise about what might be causing this, but grandparents have the wherewithal to be more indulgent, to offer takeaways and for children to be inactive.

‘We’re not suggesting the care is deficient, they have a big role to play, but they may not know what children need to eat for a healthy diet.’

Doua puncte de vedere despre obezitate

Iata cum stradania parintilor de a-i tine pe copii in siguranta, in casa, poate fi si una dintre cauzele obezitatiii:

Two thirds of parents said they thought children were getting fatter because of safety concerns about them playing outside and getting exercise without supervision.

A survey of 2,000 parents also found that just one fifth of families eat a meal together at least once a week and 80 per cent of parents admitted their child is not eating the recommended five portions of fruit and vegetables a day.

Almost three quarters of parents admitted giving in to pester power for unhealthy foods to make their lives easier [....]

Child Psychologist, Dr Richard Woolfson said: “There is no doubt that play patterns have changed dramatically in recent years. Whereas energetic free-play outdoors used to be the typical activity in childhood, such opportunities are rare now, largely because of parental fears about their child’s safety. Sadly, this has a restrictive effect on a child’s development, with less physical play, less exploratory play and even less social play. (intregul articol aici)

De asemenea, felul in care parintii reusesc sa-si controleze obiceiurile de-a minca poate determina felul in care o sa manince copiii:

Parents need to model self-control as part of teaching it to their children, and doing so can be a valuable weapon in the battle against childhood obesity.

The study, (released today by the University of Michigan’s and appearing in the April issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association’s Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine) which looked at a group of 805 children at age four and checked back on them at age 11, found that children who are able to delay gratification are less likely to be overweight

In the study, a group of 4-year-olds was asked to choose candy, animal crackers or pretzels as their preferred food and left alone with two plates of different quantities of the food.

They could eat a larger portion of chosen food if they waited until the examiner returned. If they could not wait until the examiner returned, they could ring a bell to summon the examiner back into the room, at which time they could eat the small quantity.

Almost half (47%) of the 805 children failed the test, either by ringing the bell before a seven-minute waiting period elapsed, spontaneously beginning to eat the food, becoming distressed, going to the door or calling for a parent or the examiner.

Children who had difficulty delaying gratification were about 30% more likely to be overweight by age 11 than those who could delay gratification, says study coauthor Dr. Julie Lumeng, a developmental and behavioral pediatrician at the University of Michigan Health System. (de aici)

Copiii crescuti de bunici - un studiu

Aminteam de un studiu din Marea Britanie, conform caruia jumatate dintre bunici petrec in jur de 20 de ore saptaminal ingrijindu-si nepotii - si n-avem nici un motiv sa credem ca la noi ar fi altminterea.

Children’s Society a publicat A Good Childhood Inquiry, un studiu realizat pe 30.000 de oameni, insistind pe importanta cresterii copiilor in familie. Si totusi, sint diferente intre copiii crescuti de bunici si cei crescuti la crese, gradinite?

Kirstine Hansen si Denise Hawkes au realizat un studiu pentru Universitatea din Londra (Centre for Longitudinal Studies, Institute of Education) concluzionind ca acelor copii crescuti de bunici le e mai greu sa socializeze. Explicatia? Copiii crescuti de bunici petrec putin timp cu alti copii - mai putin decit decit aceia crescuti in crese sau de bone - si sint predispusi, astfel, la probleme comportamentale.

Children using grandparent and partner care have higher behavioural scores (indicating more problem behaviour) than children using other forms of childcare.

This may be because the children cared for by grandparents and partners have less contact with other children outside of the family and are probably being cared for alone.

(o prezentare powerpoint a concluziilor studiului aici: early-childcare-and-child-development)

Miopia, o idee de prevenire

Universitatea din Sydney a publicat rezultatele unui studiu, la care au participat 4000 de copii, conform caruia miopia are mai putine sanse sa apara la copiii care petrec in fiecare zi 2-3 ore afara, la soare.

Dr Kathryn Rose of the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, said “Our results show that the protective effect of time spent outdoors persists even if a child is doing a lot of near work such as reading and studying. Television watching and using computers appears to have little effect on the development of refractive errors. Our recently published comparison of age-matched Chinese children from Sydney and Singapore showed the same trend. The results of this study are consistent with an American study which found that outdoor sport was protective, however, our study shows that the crucial feature is being outdoors irrespective of the activity you are doing. Our recently published comparison of age-matched Chinese children from Sydney and Singapore showed the same trend”

Prevention of myopia is important for future eye health, avoiding increased rates of cataract and glaucoma in adulthood, and in cases of high myopia, possible irreversible visual impairment. Promoting outdoor activity to parents and families, and including more outdoor pursuits in school curricula, could be an important public health measure to avoid the development of myopia.

Citeva studii despre astm

Un studiu realizat la Spitalul de Copii din Zurich intareste convingerea ca nasterea pe cale naturala ajuta sistemului imunitar al copilului; de data asta, studiul s-a concentrat pe problema astmului, reiesind ca riscul de aparitie a acestuia creste in cazul copiilor nascuti prin cezariana.

Inca un studiu, realizat de Centrul Medical al Universitatii Vanderbilt (Nashville), atrage atentia faptului ca acei copii nascuti toamna (cei care iarna, in perioada de circulatie maxima a virusilor, au deja 3-4 luni) ar avea cu 30% mai multe riscuri de a fi predispusi la astm. (amanunte aici).

Children who are born four months before the peak of cold and flu season have a greater risk of developing childhood asthma than children born at any other time of year, according to new research from Vanderbilt Medical Center.

In the Tennessee Asthma Bronchiolitis Study (TABS), which involved an analysis of the birth and medical records of more than 95,000 children and their mothers, researchers addressed the question of whether winter respiratory viral infections during infancy cause asthma.

They asked if there is a relationship between winter virus circulation (cold and flu season) during infancy, timing of birth, and the development of childhood asthma.

They found that the timing of when a child is born in relationship to the annual cold and flu season alters the risk for developing asthma.

Autumn-born babies, who are about 4 months old when the winter virus season peaks, have a nearly 30 percent increased risk of developing asthma compared with births during other times of the year, and this risk was similar to or greater than other well-established risk factors for asthma.

Alt studiu, realizat la scara mondiala pe 200.000 de copii si publicat in jurnalul medical The Lancet, vorbeste de o legatura intre folosirea excesiva a medicamentelor pentru copii pe baza de Paracetamol (Calpol samd) si aparitia astmului. Paracetamolul pentru copii va ramine insa in continuare recomandarea de baza a pediatrilor in cazurile de febra (peste 38,5 grade).

Am mai vorbit despre astm si posibila legatura intre aparitia lui si acidul folic aici

Acidul folic

Sau vitamina B9. E recomandat femeilor care vor sa ramina insarcinate si celor aflate deja in primele luni de sarcina, deoarece scade riscul de aparitie a unor malformatii congenitale de coloana - acesta fiind lucru demonstrat.

Date fiind beneficiile acidului folic, Statele Unite, Canada si Chile au inceput sa il adauge in produsele alimentare, mai precis in faina/paine. SUA fac asta de 10 ani, si se considera ca malformatiile congenitale ar fi scazut cu 25% de-atunci incoace. Fireste ca beneficiile - sau riscurile - pe termen lung se vor vedea si in urmatorii ani; de aceea dezbaterile despre obligativitatea adaugarii acidului folic in faina se lungesc in alte tari, cum ar fi Marea Britanie, Australia si Irlanda.

Stim si altciteva lucruri despre acidul folic luat ca supliment inainte de nastere…

  • din 32.000 de copii sub 18 luni ai caror mame au luat acid folic (monitorizati in Anglia) 24% sint mai predispusi la infectii respiratorii
  • in Norvegia continua un studiu prin care Autoritatea de Sanatate Publica incearca sa probeze o legatura intre acidul folic si riscul aparitiei astmului la copii
  • acidul folic ar determina o greutate mai mare a copilului la nastere

… si citeva despre efectele acidul folic consumat pe termen lung:

  • la batrini, acidul folic ar scadea riscul aparitiei/dezvoltarii sclerozei
  • se studiaza legatura intre consumul de acid folic si scaderea riscului de accidente cardiovasculare
  • s-a vorbit despre o legatura cu aparitia cancerului de colon, fapt care nu e dovedit si se studiaza inca; o serie de rezultate ar putea fi facute publice curind in Marea Britanie

mai mult, aici

UNICEF despre ingrijirea copilului: tendinte si solutii

UNICEF a dat pubicat ieri un studiu despre ingrijirea si bunastarea copilului, realizat in tarile asa-zis bogate (de noi nu se pomeneste deci). Tarile nordice sint cele in care copiii sint cel mai bine ingrijiti.

Se vede ca tot mai putini copii sint crescuti acasa: 80% dintre copiii intre 3 si 6 ani sint inscrisi la crese si gradinite. 25% dintre copiii sub 3 ani sint crescuti in crese (in tarile nordice procentul ajunge la 50).

De ce? Tot mai multe femei ajung sa renunte la cresterea si ingrijirea copilului in favoarea carierei - sau doar a unui loc de munca. Este poate prima data cind, oficial, se trage un semnal de alarma in acest sens; caci miza, dezvoltarea copilului in primii ani, e strins legata de atentia, grija si dargostea cu care e tratat.

Ce se poate face? Crese si gradinite mai multe si mai multa grija in ele; asistenta medicala mai dedicata si mai specializata; si mai ales, o politica de stat ce favorizeaza toate astea.

Raportul a luat in considerare bunastarea materiala, sanatatea si siguranta copilului, educatia, familia si relatiile de familie, riscurile, precum si viziunea subiectiva a copiilor despre acesti factori.




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